The International Journal of Decisions Sciences is a peer-reviewed journal. The main objective of International Journal of Decisions Sciences (IJDS) is to provide an international forum for practitioners and researchers both for-profit and non-profit organizations, along with information technology professionals, software developers, and vendors, to exchange, share, and present useful and innovative ideas and work. IJDS emphasizes the presentation and distribution of ground-breaking and original theories and concepts, which can shape future directions of research. These, when applied, can enable policy makers, government officials, business managers, and different decision makers to spread over various advanced techniques and new applications of information technology. IJDS also supports discussions on how information systems can promote decision making, and also in turn, how the advances brought about by these decision making practices can affect the growth in, and future application of, information technology. All models (normative, descriptive, cognitive, and prescriptive) are encouraged.