The Journal of International Business and Finance is a peer-reviewed journal. Journal of International Business and Finance (JIBF)publishes high-quality articles in all areas of accounting, economics, and finance as well as selected articles in other areas of business. It strives to make its articles understandable to academicians as well as practitioners. The scope of the JIBF is broad.It covers theoretical and empirical analysis relating to all areas of business and finance. Theoretical, empirical and applied manuscripts are welcome for publication consideration. The Journal is published twice per year by Serials Publications. All papers submitted to the Journal are double-blind reviewed.The principal criteria of acceptance are originality, rigor, practical relevance, and quality.