The International Journal of Neural Systems Theory and Applications is a peer-reviewed journal. The International Journal of Neural Systems Theory and Applications is a bi-annual peer- reviewed journal. This journal publishes high quality original research papers on the science and technology of neural networks, covering significant technical knowledge, exploratory developments, and applications of new and established neural systems and methods. Among the topics of interest are neural system modeling, identification and simulation, the analysis and design of neural systems, and practical implementation (including circuits, CMOS chip, IC and online computers). The scope encompasses physics, biology, computer science and engineering.